cruller in some parts of the U.S., but cruller also refers to a particularly airy type of ring doughnut, usually glazed.
Washington Irving's reference to "doughnuts" in 1809 in his History of New York is an early printed use of the word. Irving described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks." These "nuts" of fried dough might now be called doughnut holes. "Doughnut" is the more traditional spelling, and still dominates outside the US. At present, "donut" and "doughnut" are both pervasive in American English. The first known printed use of "donut" was in a Los Angeles Times article dated August 10, 1929. There, Bailey Millard jokingly complains about the decline of spelling, and that he "can't swallow the 'wel-dun donut' nor the ever so 'gud bred'." The interchangeability of the two spellings can be found in a series of "National Donut Week" articles in The New York Times that covered the 1939 World's Fair. In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the "donut" spelling. Dunkin' Donuts, which was founded in 1948 under the name Open Kettle ( Quincy, Massachusetts), is the oldest surviving company to use the "donut" variation, but the now defunct Mayflower Donut Corporation appears to be the first company to use that spelling, having done so prior to World War II.
Doughnuts may come in many shapes and sizes. Sprinkle(d) doughnuts are doughnuts covered with sprinkles that adhere to the icing. These sprinkles may vary in color and are sometimes offered in holiday schemes (e.g. red and green sprinkles for Christmas or yellow, orange, and black for Halloween).
Traditional Polish pączkiIn the Netherlands, the Oliebollen, referred to in cookbooks as Dutch Doughnuts, is a type of fritter containing pieces of apple and/or dried fruit like raisins; they are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.
In Lithuania, a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. Sometimes spurgos are similar to Polish doughnuts, but some specific recipes, such as cottage cheese doughnuts (varškės spurgos), have also been invented.
In Poland and parts of the U.S. with a large Polish community, like Detroit, Michigan and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the round, jam-filled doughnuts eaten especially - though not exclusively - during the Carnival are called pączki . Russian "пончики", ponchiki and Ukrainian "пампушки", pampushky are the equivalent designations for pączki. Romanian gogoşi are similar to the Polish pączki.
Jelly doughnuts, known as Sufganiyah in Israel have become a traditional Hanukkah food in the recent era, as they are cooked in oil, associated with the holiday account of the miracle of the oil.
In France and in New Orleans, Louisiana, there exists a fried pastry called a beignet, which is sometimes described as a French doughnut.
In Spain and Latin America the churro is a popular fried, doughnut-like pastry.
A popular doughnut in Hawaii is the Malasada. Malasadas were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portugese settlers and are a variation on Portugal's filhoze. They are small eggy balls of yeast dough deep fried and coated in sugar.
In Germany, the doughnut equivalents are called Berliners, except in the city of Berlin, where they are called Pfannkuchen. In southern Germany they are also called Krapfen and are especially popular during Carneval season (Karneval/Fasching) in Southern and Middle Germany and on New Year's Eve in Northern Germany. These do not have the typical ring shape but instead are solid and usually filled with jam. Bismarcks and Berlin doughnuts are also found in the U.S. Doughnuts similar to these are also prepared in the Northern Balkans, particualrly in Croatia and Serbia's Vojvodina province. They are called krofna, a name derived from a German word for this pastry. This type of doughnut is popular in Chile because of the large German community there and is called a Berlin (plural Berlines). It may be filled with jam or with manjar, the Chilean version of dulce de leche.
Italian doughnuts are called zeppole or bomboloni.
Some savory fried items not based on wheat-flour pastry are referred to as doughnuts, such as the ring-shaped Indian vadas, made of lentils.
Chinese cuisine features long fried doughnut sticks that are often quite oily, hence their name: you tiao (Mandarin); these pastries are not sweet. In Cantonese, this doughnut-style pastry is called yow ja guei. Often this is served with the traditional rice porridge of Chinese cooking, congee. Chinese restaurants in the US sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes.
Many bakeries in South Korea offer doughnuts either filled with or made entirely from the Korean traditional rice dessert tteok ( 떡).These come in a variety of different colors, though they are normally in green, pink, or white. They are often filled with a sweet red bean paste or sesame seeds.
To celebrate Fat Tuesday in southeastern Pennsylvania, churches sell a potato-starch doughnut called a Fastnacht (or Fasnacht). The treats are so popular there that Fat Tuesday is often called Fastnacht Day.
In the U.S., doughnuts sometimes incorporate seasonal agricultural products, often made at the farms or orchards, such as maple syrup doughnuts in spring in the Northeast and apple cider doughnuts during the apple harvest. These form an important product of agritourism.
In some parts of Scotland, ring doughnuts are referred to as doughrings, with the doughnut moniker being reserved exclusively for the nut shaped variety. Glazed, twisted rope-shaped doughnuts are known as yum-yums.