Before the widespread industrialisation of Denmark (ca. 1860), small family-based agriculture formed the vast majority of Danish society. As in most agrarian societies, people, lived practically self-sufficiently, and made do with the food they could produce themselves, or what could be purchased locally. This meant reliance on locally available food products ,which form the basis of the traditional diet: cereal products, dairy products, pork, seafood, apples, plums, carrots, potatoes, onions, beer and bread.
Agriculture still plays a large role in Denmark 's economy, and Danish agricultural products are generally preferred over imported items, although products from Germany , The Netherlands and the rest of Europe are gaining increasingly larger market shares in Danish supermarkets.
As in most pre-industrialized societies, long winters and a lack of refrigeration meant that foods which could be stored for a long time came to predominate. This helps explains the lack of fresh fruits and vegetables in many traditional recipes, and the emphasis placed on seasonally available foods. It also helps explain some of the traditional food preparation processes which favored smoking, pickling and other food preservation techniques that prolong the storage life of products. Moreover, Denmark 's geography, which comprises of many islands meant that before industrialization and concommitant advances in transportation it was difficult, time-consuming, and costly to travel great distances, or to ship products. These factors have thus helped mold the traditional eating habits of the Danish people.
During the second half of the 20th century, Denmark entered into a new modern age of affluence after World War II. Farming cooperatives continued to grow and develop, leading to a move towards bigger agricultural business, and away from the small family farm. This has been compounded by migration to the cities, and suburban sprawl around the cities.
The stove, refrigerator, freezer and other modern kitchen major appliances changed the way one prepared food. Improvements in marketing, the growth of the supermarket and improvements in transportation and refrigeration provided new possibilities. Women were increasingly working out of the house. Traditional sex roles were changing.
All these influences and conditions, and more common to the modern way of life, have led to new demands on the national cuisine, as well as new possibilities.
Danes love good food. Good food is an important ingredient in the Danish concept of hygge, a word that can be best translated as a "warm, fuzzy, comfortable feeling of well-being", however "hygge" is also a highly personal concept, dependend on many circumstances such as, for example, family traditions, e.g. the celebration of Christmas etc. Good food, good company, wine, comfortable furniture, soft easy lighting (candle lights in particular), music, etc. all contribute to the strive for feeling of "hygge."
A well-known quip states that the only time one is likely to find a Dane brandishing a knife, is when he has a fork in the other hand.
Danes are fairly conservative. Therefore they appreciate traditional cooking, and are hesitant to embrace new "different" types of food.
In the new Danish cooking style, dishes are lighter, smaller, more nutritious and generally offer more focus on fresh vegetables. This mode of cooking is increasingly international, highly influenced by French, American and Asian cuisine, especially the cuisine of Thailand
Influence from abroad
France has been historically a strong influence, as a leading land of culture. The French language and culture has had a strong influence in the royal house, and in the upper classes. This has also had an influence on Danish cuisine.
Germany 's proximity has also provided a long-term influence. The area now making up northern Germany was at times throughout history under Danish rule, and there are still many Danish people living in this part of Germany ( Schleswig ), as well as Germans living in southern Denmark ( South Jutland ).
Although historically the average Danish person did not travel widely, in more recent years this has begun to change. Danes are travelling more now, and to farther, more distant and exotic destinations. The food cultures of the most popular travel destinations, sun-drenched southern European countries such as France , Spain , Italy and Greece , have become well known. As Danes have become increasingly confident in their abilities to move outside the safety net of resort villages and charter travel packages, so has their exposure to the cuisine of new lands. This widened appreciation for new eating experiences has followed Danes home after their wanderlusts have been quenched.
Another influence that brings greater focus on exotic cooking has been the growing availability of exotic food products in the supermarket, and aggressive marketing efforts to make these more acceptable in the average home. These products have become more available primarily because of the growing immigrant population (Turkish, Pakistani, Chinese, Thai, African) in Denmark .
In a nutshell, Denmark and the Danish people are becoming more internationalized.
American culture has also influenced the Danish cuisine. American television and movies are widespread. The Internet has also brought the world closer.
Danes do not eat out a lot, although this is also changing in recent times, especially in the bigger cities, and among younger and more affluent people. Eating out in restaurants is rather expensive. The expense is due in part to the country's high taxes, which are included in the cost of restaurant meals. Also included in the price are service tips and the good wages paid to staff, who are well-educated in their jobs. Because service tips are included, and wages paid to staff are good, it is not expected that one pays extra tip at the table, unless service is exceptionally noteworthy.
Therefore the average Dane saves eating out at restaurants for special occasions. When one does go out to a restaurant it is usually a lengthy, relaxed affair, consisting of many courses and drinks. Danish people will come typically to a restaurant at 6.00 PM , and stay until 11.00 PM or later.
There can be found many fine restaurants in the larger cities, such as Copenhagen and Århus. In addition some of Denmark 's finest restaurants can be found throughout the country, as well as throughout the countryside, in hotels and lodges (kro). The kro (roughly equivalent to a pub, but held in higher social regard) provides lodging as well as meals and drinks, and has a long role in Denmark , especially the royal privileged lodges. There is a general understanding that every small town has a kro directly across from the town church; thus one did not have to travel far to be absolved of sin on Sunday morning after a funfilled Saturday night.
In the big cities, and in shopping districts, there are many more reasonably priced eating places, including such chain fast food possibilities as McDonald's, Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken and 7-Eleven.
The most common quick food restaurant is the "burger bar" which typically features hamburgers, hot dogs, pizza and a wide variety of other fast food staples. These can be found in every town in the country, large or small. In the larger cities, Turkish people often own these restaurants. Among the other fast food items can be found Turkish and Middle East food specialties such as falafel, shish-kabob and spit-roasted meat with salad in pita bread.
Another common quick food alternative, the "original" fast food outlet in Denmark , is the pølsevogn (sausage wagon), where one can cheaply eat a variety of different sausages, including Denmark 's very famous red sausages. These hot dog-like sausages are long (ca. 12 inch long), thin (about the diameter of an index finger) and bright red. They are traditionally served on a small, rectangular paper plate along with a side order of bread (similar to a hot dog bun, but without a slice in it), and a serving of both ketchup and mustard. The sausage is hand held, dipped into both the ketchup and the mustard and eaten. The bread is eaten alternately, also dipped into the ketchup and mustard.
When the sausage is served in a traditional hot dog bun, it is called a "hot dog". It is commonly served with kethcup, mustard, onion (either raw or toasted, i.e. ristet) and thin sliced pickles on top. Ristet onions are similar in taste to French-fried onion rings. Another variety is the French hot dog (Fransk hot dog) which is a sausage stuffed into a special long roll. The roll has a hole in the end, in which the hot dog is slipped into, after the requested accompaniment has been squirted in (ketchup, mustard).
The simplest sausage wagons are portable and very temporary, but most are more permanent. They are typically a metal wagon with an open window to the street, and a counter where one can stand and eat the sausage. More advanced wagons may be built in and include limited seating, usually both inside and outside.
Another reasonable place to eat is at a café. These are plentiful, especially in the bigger cities, and usually offer soups, sandwiches, salads, cakes, pastries, and other light foods, in addition to the expected coffee, tea, beer and other beverages.
A traditional breakfast is buttered bread, Danish skæreost (slicing cheese), a buttery creamy white cheese (often Danish havarti or Danish tilsit), strawberry jam and a lot of coffee. Today most Danes eat different types of cereal with milk for breakfast or ymer or A38 which are yoghurt-like milk products (similar to junket) with cereal or crumbled bread on top. Another traditional breakfast, especially among the elder, are oatmeal porridge and bread-and-bear-soup (øllebrød).
Bread takes many forms: at breakfast it is most often a white bread known as franskbrød (French bread), rolls (boller, birkes, rundstykker) or croissants. The "Danish pastry", which is also eaten at breakfast, is called wienerbrød (Viennese bread) and it comes in many varieties. A festive breakfast calls for a shot or two of Gammel Dansk, a Danish stomach bitter.
Eating breakfast out of the house is unheard of, although hotel restaurants serve breakfast for their guests. In the cities it is becoming more common to eat brunch out in restaurants during weekends.
It is rather common to invite guests to a morgenbord (literally: morning table) on special occasions. The types of occasions would include, but are not limited to: wedding anniversaries, confirmations and 'round' birthdays. Such a celebration typically features more of the sweet Wienerbrød, "brunsviger" (a soft dough with thick brown sugar topping) and lighter breads, foregoing the heartier breads (rugbrød) of the day-to-day breakfast.
The majority of adult Danes work, and therefore eat their lunch at work. Many work places offer a lunchroom cafeteria, however many prefer to bring along a packed lunch-- the madkasse (food box). This typically consists of a few pieces of smørrebrød from home.
Pålæg and smørrebrød
Literally translated, pålæg means "something laid on", and this something is generally laid on to a piece of buttered rye bread (rugbrød), a dense, black bread with many seeds. Pålæg then among others can refer to commercial or homemade cold cuts, pieces of meat or fish, cheese or spreads.
This is essentially the base on which the art of the famous Danish open sandwich, smørrebrød is created: A slice or two of pålæg is placed on the buttered bread, and then pyntet (decorated) with the right accompaniments, to create a tasty and visually appealing food item.
Some traditional examples include:
Dyrlægens natmad (translated, Veterinarian's midnight snack) -- On a piece of dark rye bread, a layer of liver paté (leverpostej), topped with a slice of corned beef (salt kød) and a slice of meat aspic (sky). This is all decorated with raw onion rings and cress.
- Eel -- Smoked eel on dark rye bread, topped with scrambled eggs and sliced radishes.
- Leverpostej -- Warm rough-chopped liverpaste served on dark rye bread, topped with bacon, and sauteed mushrooms.
- Roast beef, thin sliced and served on dark rye bread, topped with a portion of remoulade, and decorated with a sprinkling of shredded horseradish and toasted (ristet) onion.
- Roast pork (Ribbensteg), thin sliced and served on dark rye bread, topped with red sweet and sour cabbage, and decorated with a slice of orange.
- Rolled pork roast (Rullepølse).
- Tartarmad, raw beef mince with salt and pepper, served on dark rye bread, topped with raw onion rings, grated horseradish and a raw egg yolk.
- Smoked salmon (laks)-- Slices of cold smoked or cured salmon (gravad laks) on white bread, topped with shrimp and decorated with a slice of lemon and fresh dill.
- Stjerneskud (translated, Shooting Star) -- The undisputed star of smørrebrød. On a base of buttered dark rye bread, two pieces of fish: a piece of steamed white fish on one half, a piece of fried, battered plaice or rødspætte on the other half. On top is piled a mound of shrimp, which is then decorated with a dollop of mayonnaise, red caviar, and a lemon slice.
Det kolde bord
The Danish kolde bord (translated, the cold table) corresponds to its Swedish counterpart, the smorgasbord (in Swedish, Smörgåsbord). It is usually served at lunch time. The cold table may be a buffet arrangement prepared away from the dining table, or more likely it will consist of the many and varied items being brought to the dining table and passed around family-style.
As a first course (or first visit to the buffet table) one will in all likelihood eat pickled herring (marinerede sild), or another herring dish. The most common herring is marinated either in a clear sweet, peppery vinegar sauce (white herring), or in a red seasoned vinegar (red herring). It may also come in a variety of sour cream-based sauces, including a curry sauce which is very popular. The white herring is typically served on buttered, black rye bread, topped with white onion rings and curry salad (a sour-cream based sauce, flavored with curry and chopped pickles), and served with hard boiled eggs and tomato slices. Herring can also be found which is first fried, and then marinated this is called "stegte sild i eddike" (lit.: Fried herring in vinegar). On extra festive occasions a prepared silderet (herring dish) might be served in which the herring pieces are placed in a serving dish along with other ingredients. Examples might be herring, sliced potato, onions and capers topped with a dill sour cream/mayonnaise sauce, or herring, apple pieces, and horseradish topped with a curry sour-cream/mayonnaise sauce.
Herring is usually served with ice cold aquavit, which according to Danish tradition, helps the fish swim down to the stomach.
As a second course one will in all likelihood eat warm foods (lune retter) served on rye bread with accompaniments. Some typical warm foods would be:
- Frikadeller -- Danish meatballs, the "national" dish
- Chopped steak patty (Hakkebøf)
- Danish sausage (Medisterpølse)
- Pariserbøf, (Danish: Parisian steak)
- Veal medallion (Kalvemedaljon)
- Liver with sauteed mushrooms and onions
- Dansk bøf med spejlæg og rugbrød
- Veal tenderloin (mørbradbøf) with sauteed onions and pickle slices (surt)
Beer (in particular the Danish brands— Tuborg, Carlsberg or Faxe) is the preferred beverage during this meal, especially with lune retter, and through the rest of the cold table meal. It is also quite acceptable to have another shot or two of the Akvavit along the way. Children generally drink soft drinks.
Next comes a selection of cold cuts (pålæg) and salads, as might be found on prepared smørrebrød.
Finally one is served a variety of cheeses and fruit, along with crackers or white bread.
Christmas lunch, the Julefrokost
A special variation on det kolde bord is the Christmas lunch, a festive holiday cold table or smorgasbord, served during the holiday season. Groups of people (coworkers, members of clubs and organizations) generally hold their annual julefrokost on a Friday evening in a restaurant's private room. There is great demand for these rooms, and planning begins early in the year. The "lunch" may include music and dancing, and usually continues into the very early hours of the morning with plentiful drinking either on the premises or in after-hour bar tours. All over Denmark trains and buses run all night during the julefrokost season and the police are on a special lookout for drunk drivers.
A very special part of, not only the julefrokost but of most festive, celebratory meals is the selskabssang (party song). These songs are very special to Denmark . They are sung to traditional tunes, and have specially written words that fit the occasion. The later in the evening, the more drunk the participants, the more challenging the lyrics become.
For the average family, dinner is the one meal of the day where everyone can be gathered. Due to the pressures of the modern life where both parents are likely to work, and the children are in school or pre-school institutions, dinner preparation and eating time becomes shortened.
Danes enjoy inviting people over for dinner. These are often an elaborate affair with many courses. Special events are often celebrated with family and friends at home. A celebration is not complete without a sit-down dinner.
Guests are generally invited to come at 6:00 PM for a welcome drink before dinner. Danes are punctual.
The velkomstdrik is served shortly after guests arrive, and there are usually small snacks set out, such as potato chips or nuts. Some traditional favorites include:
- Martini -- Not a dry Martini, but vermouth served either straight up in an aperitif glass, or on the rocks.
- Kir -- Champagne or white wine with blackcurrant liquour.
- Champagne , sekt or other sparkling wine
Cocktails are becoming increasingly more popular, especially among the young.
The first course is typically fish, although a wide variety of other appetizers are becoming more common. Common traditional appetizers include:
- Shrimp cocktail
- Seafood or fish paté or terrine, served with bread
Soup is often a meal on its own, or served with bread. It can also be served before the main dish.
- Asparagus soup
- Chicken soup with small dumplings (melboller)
- Curry soup
- Leek and potato soup with bacon
- Yellow split pea soup (gule ærter)
Main dishes (Hovedretter)
Fish, seafood and meat are prominent parts of any traditional Danish dish.
Fish consumption is still high, although it has dropped in recent years. The most commonly eaten fish and seafood are:
- Cod (torsk), a common white fish in general food preparation (baked, steamed, fried). It is also dried (klipfisk). Prices have risen in recent years, making this once-favorite fish drop down the list. It has mainly been replaced by other white fish, such as haddock and ling.
- Langoustine (jomfruhummer)
- Eel (ål), smoked or fried.
- Herring (sild), a whole section should be written about Danish herring dishes. Most involve the herring served cold after being pickled.
- Plaice (rødspætte), in the form of fried, battered fish filets or as a common white fish in general food preparation (baked, steamed, fried)
- Salmon (laks) -- smoked or gravad lox style. Cooked salmon has become much more common in recent times, and is now fairly widespread.
- Shrimp (rejer) -- Small shrimp from the north Atlantic are most common. Fjord shrimp are a rare delicacy: very small and flavorful, about the size of the smallest fingernail.
- Roe (rogn) -- Fish eggs from cod, lumpfish (stenbider) and salmon.
Fish from Bornholm , Iceland and Greenland also has a special place in the Danish cuisine. The island of Bornholm , a part of Denmark located in the Baltic Sea , to the east of Denmark , the south of Sweden , and the north of Poland , is noted for its smoked fish items. Iceland and Greenland have long shared histories with Denmark , and the fish from these North Atlantic lands is a sign of quality.
As regards meat-eating, the Danes primarily eat pork, rather than beef: salted and smoked pork, hams, pork roasts, pork tenderloin, pork cutlets and chops are all popular. Ground pork meat is used in many traditional recipes requiring ground meat. Danish Bacon is generally of good quality (in Denmark ; exported Danish bacon is of exceptional quality), and available in both the striped and back varieties. While still in first place, pork has lost ground to turkey, beef and veal in recent years. Lamb and mutton are hardly ever eaten in Denmark and viewed as a meat that other nations eat, and holds no particular interest for Danes.
Steaks are commonly eaten out at restaurants, although good steaks are now available in supermarkets.
Chicken is also popular. A tray of frozen chicken pieces ready to put into the oven, Lørdagskylling (translated, Saturday chicken) is a quick and cheap way to feed a family.
Traditional main course dishes
Tradition vs. the new Danish cuisine.
- Beef hash (Biksemad) served with a fried egg, bernaise sauce and ketchup
- Black pudding, made from blood (Blodpølse)
- Duck -- Roast duck in generally associated with Christmas. It is traditionally served with baked apples and prunes.
- Finker -- Similar to haggis
- Pork slices (Æbleflæsk) served with an apple-onion and bacon compote
- Roast pork (Flæskesteg) with crackling (svær)
- Vandgrød (water porridge), usually barley porridge
- Æggekage (egg cake) -- similar to an omelette, but made with flour so that it rises slightly.
- Øllebrød (beer bread), a porridge made of rye bread, sugar and beer
Although the potato is the central vegetable in traditional Danish cooking, it is by no means the only vegetable associated with Danish cuisine. Those other vegetables that play an important role often had to be preserved for long periods of time in cold rooms, or were pickled or marinated for storage. Cauliflower, carrots and a variety of cabbages were often a part of the daily meal, especially when in season, in the days prior to widespread refrigeration.
- Peas -- Danes can be almost obsessive during fresh pea season. Peas are a popular snack. They are bought by the bagful, and eaten raw as one goes along.
- Brussels sprouts
- Creamed kale (grønlangkål), spinach or white cabbage
- Cucumber salad
- Italian salad, a mixture of vegetables in a creme fraiche/mayonnaise dressing, served on ham
- Pickled red beet slices
- Pickles, a mixture of pickled vegetables in a yellow gelatinous sauce, served with corned beef
- Potato, more than a vegetable (see below)
- Russian salad, a red beet salad
- Sweet and sour red cabbage
The indispensable potato
The potato is almost ubiquitous in Danish cooking. It has captured this important position in spite of its relatively short career in the Danish kitchen. The potato was first introduced into Denmark by Huguenots immigrating to Fredericia , Denmark from their native France in 1720. Around 1750 King Frederik the 5th encouraged widespread cultivation of the grasslands on the Jutland Peninsula , by enticing German immigrants to move to Denmark and cultivate potatoes.
The potato is considered an essential side dish to every warm meal. A common expression is "Jeg er en heldig kartoffel!" (I am a lucky potato!). This gives an indication of the exalted and well-loved position that the potato takes in the life of the Danish people.
Especially prized are the season's early potatoes, such as those from Samsø.
- Au gratin potatoes
- Baked potatoes with crème fraiche
- Boiled new potatoes
- Boiled potatoes smothered in butter with fresh dill or chives
- Caramelized browned potatoes (brune kartoffler)
- Cold sliced potatoes arranged on buttered rye bread and decorated with mayonnaise and chive
- Mashed potatoes covered with a meat stew
- Pomfritter (French fries)
- Potato salad (kartoffelsalat)
- Potato wedges baked with thyme
The potato's flexibility is almost limitless.
Pasta and rice have made great inroads into the Danish diet. Danes eat more pasta than any other people.
Sauces and condiments
Sauces and condiments are an important part of the Danish meal:
- Béarnaise sauce, served with steaks
- Gravy (Danish: brun sovs), served with just about anything and everything. Variations include mushroom sauce, onion sauce and herbed brown sauce.
- Horseradish sauce (peberrodsovs), a cream sauce served with roast beef or prime rib. Sometimes frozen into individual servings for placement on hot roast beef.
- Ketchup, a must with red sausages, along with mustard.
- Mayonnaise, used in food preparation, and as a condiment with pomfritter or pommes frites (French fries), more commonly than ketchup. A generous dollop of mayonnaise is generally placed on top of shrimp.
- Mustard (sennep). A wide variety of mustards are available. Traditional mustard is a sharp flavored, dark golden brown, but many other types are widely available and used, including dijon , honey-mustard and other specialty flavored variants. Prepared salad mustard (yellow mustard) is generally eaten with red sausage or hot dogs. A special sweet, dilled mustard is eaten with smoked salmon (lox).
- Parsley sauce (persillesovs), a white sauce which is generously flavored with parsley.
- Pepper sauce, served with steaks
- Remoulade, a very commonly used condiment. A close second to mayonnaise as the preferred dipping sauce for pomme friter (French fries). At McDonald's this is referred to as "Danish sauce" when given out with French fries.
- Whiskey sauce, served with steaks
- White sauce, often used with vegetables as a binding sauce (peas, peas and carrots, spinach, shredded cabbage).
Dairy products and eggs
- Blue cheese
- Danish tilsit
- Havarti cheese
While the traditional, commonly-eaten cheese (skæreost) in Denmark is mild, there are also stronger cheeses associated with Danish cuisine. Some of these are very pungent. Blue cheese can be quite strong, and Danish cheese manufacturers produce molded cheeses that span the range from the mildest and creamiest to the intense blue-veined cheese internationally associated with Denmark .
Another strong cheese is Gammel Ole ("Old Ole"- Ole is a man's name), a pungent aged cheese that has matured for a longer period of time. It can be bitingly strong. It is often served in combination with sliced onion and aspic (sky) on Danish ryebread slathered with fat.
Strong cheeses are not to everyone's taste. Danes who find the smell offensive might joke about Gammel Ole's smelling up a whole house, just by being in a sealed plastic container in the refrigerator. One might also refer to Gammel Ole's pungency when talking about things that are not quite right, i.e. "they stink". Here one might say that something stinks or smells of Gammel Ole.
Seasonings and herbs
Fresh herbs are very popular, and a wide variety are readily available at supermarkets or local produce stands. Many people grow fresh herbs either in the kitchen window, in window boxes or outside, weather permitting. Most common in Danish cooking:
Similarly to vegetables, fruit had to withstand long storage during the winter to become a part of the traditional cuisine. Fruit is generally eaten in smaller portions, often as an accompaniment to cheese, or as decoration with desserts.
Fruit that is traditionally associated with Danish cuisine:
- Apples -- Æbler -- Popular in traditional dishes as 'winter apples' store well. Can be fried and served with 'Flæsk' (thick bacon)
- Black Currant -- Solbær (literally 'sun berries')
- Cherries -- Kirsebær -- When in season eaten fresh. But famously cooked into cherry sauce, traditionally served over rice pudding (risalamande) at Christmas. Also used in making Heering, a famous cherry liquour, produced in Denmark .
- Pears -- Pærer
- Plums -- Blommer
- Red currants -- Ribs
- Strawberries -- Jordbær (literally 'earth berries')
A combination of strawberries, red currants, black currants, blueberries and mulberries is known as "forest fruits" (skovbær) and is a common component in tarts and marmalades. A popular dessert is made from boiling down one or more berries (and/or rhubarbs) into 'rødgrød (red porridge) med fløde (with cream)'. The cream, which is poured on top, is often substituted by milk.
- Akvavit -- a clear, high proof spirit made from potatoes but, unlike vodka, always herbed (dilled, etc.)
- Beer -- Carlsberg, Tuborg, local.
- Bitters -- the most popular bitters is "Gammel Dansk" (translated, Old Danish).
- Coffee -- often taken throughout the day and evening
- Elderberry juice -- hyldebærsaft -- a disappearing delicacy
- Fruit wines -- Cherry wine, black currant wine, elderberry wine
- Gløgg -- hot punch made with red wine, brandy and sherry with raisins and almonds. Traditional around Christmas. Similar to Mulled wine.
- Hot chocolate -- Varm kakao
- Mead -- Mjød -- made legendary by the vikings
- Mineral water (Danskvand, translated Danish water)
- Tea -- growing in popularity are herbal teas
- Ice cream -- By far, the favorite dessert.
- Pancakes -- Thin, crepe-like pancakes, rolled up, sprinkled with confectioner's sugar, and served with strawberry jam.
- Rice pudding (risalamande) --
- Rødgrød med fløde -- Stewed, thickened red fruit (usually strawberries) with cream
- Apple charlotte (Æblekage)-- Stewed apple topped with bread crumbs
- Danish pastries, known in Denmark as wienerbrød ( Vienna bread)
- Kransekage (translated, ringcake) -- an almond cake consisting of increasingly smaller and smaller rings stacked one on top of each other, creating an upside down cone form. The cake rings are decorated with white icing, and the cake is decorated with red-and-white Danish flags made of paper. On extra special occasions they will cover a bottle of champagne. Kransekage is typically served with champagne on New Year's and to celebrate such extra special occasions such as weddings, "round" birthdays and wedding anniversaries.
- Layer cakes
- Pebernødder -- pepper nuts.
- Liquorice Warning! Danish liquorice contains large amounts of ammonium chloride and is probably the strongest kind of liquorice in the world. Some Danes love to share their liquorice with unsuspecting foreigners- so be warned.
- Wine gums
The new Danish cuisine
Danish cuisine continues to change and keep up with the times. It has become more health-conscious, and has drawn inspiration (fusion cuisine) not only from the traditional French and Italian kitchen, but also from many other more exotic gastronomical sources. These come often from either the travels of cooks, but also their immigration into Denmark from all over the world.
Danish cuisine has also looked inwards at the rich possibilities inherent in Danish traditional cooking, and in this way attempted to redefine itself, using local products and cooking techniques that have in the past been used in limited ways.